The cost of the PEntagon financed the expansion of higher Country Email List education and improved teachers' salaries. Additionally, the National Defense Education Act of 1958 provided low-interest student loans to improve " the quality and quantity of manpower required to Country Email List meet America's national defense needs " well into the 1970s. The Cold War university helped spawn, to use Galbraith's phrase, an " affluent society " dependent on the link between intellectual Country Email List production and national security. He brought higher education to the masses, most notably through the GI Bill of 1944. He also made intellectual.
Connections that continue to resonate today. The development of area studies Country Email List programs , focused on specific geographic regions, created, for example, a clear path for academia to The US entered the policy circles of the State Department and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), while enshrining Orientalist perspectives on race and foreign policy. More generally, Country Email List many of the most important and influential academic humanists of the day - historians like Schlesinger and Richard Hofstadter, or philosophers like Reinhold Niebuhr, Sidney Country Email List Hook and Hannah Arendt - were committed to a liberal consensus that emphasized shared by all democratic citizens, especially in the United States. Combined with the Red.
Scare ( Red Scare), which purged hundreds of leftist professors in the 1950s, Country Email List the Cold War university produced a conformist intellectual environment. That consensus became the target of criticism in the 1960s and 1970s . The New Left questioned both the institutional Country Email List connections of the university with the security state as well as the culture of conformism that it reflected. F r a n c f o rt School thinkers such as Herbert Marcuse and Theodor Adorno, along with their American colleagues such as C. Wright Mills, offered a new critique of the militarization of the university and its place in what Mills called the " power elite ". The negative reaction to the New Left Country Email List resulted in a counterrevolution in ideas; many Cold War liberals reverted to neoconservative intellectuals fearful that student radicalism meant a new moral relativism.